25. October 2016 08:12
Knee joint comprises of three bones namely: femur (upper leg bone), tibia (lower leg bone) and patella (kneecap). Any injury to these bones and muscles, tendons as well as ligaments the knee joint can cause pain and discomfort. Depending on the severity of the condition, knee pain can be classified into:
- Acute knee pain: When there is short term or immediate knee pain
- Chronic knee pain: The pain does not subside easily and continues for a longer time.
- Sports injuries such as ACL, MCL or PCL injury, fractures, sprains, strains, Bursitis etc.
- Medical conditions such as Arthritis, Torn Meniscus, Osteoporosis etc.
- Kneecap dislocation
- Repetitive use of knee joint
- Previous medical history
- Falls or accidents
- Direct blow to the knee
- Risk factors
- Sports activities
- Weak knee muscles
- Difficulty in walking
- Locking of the knee
- Redness and swelling in knee
- Tenderness and stiffness in the knee joint
- Popping sensation in the knee
- Inability to bear weight
- Any kind of knee deformity
During the physical examination, the orthopedic doctor may check various symptoms of knee pain. He may ask about the medical history. Imaging tests such as X-rays, Ultra sound, MRI and CT scan may be conducted to determine the extent of damage.
- Medications: The doctor may prescribe non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications to relieve swelling. Cortisone injections may be recommended in case of severe pain.
- Physical therapy: Specific exercises may be suggested by the doctor to help the patients recover faster. They may also help to improve joint flexibility and strength.
- Rest: The doctor may suggest providing adequate rest to the injured knee. The activities such as running, jumping, swimming etc. that strain the knee joint should be avoided.
- Heat treatment and ice: Heat therapy may help to relieve pain and swelling. Ice packs may also be applied at frequent intervals to reduce discomfort.
- Immobilization: Wearing a brace or cast may help to provide support and immobilize the knee joint.
- Elevation: The leg must be kept elevated above the level of heart to improve circulation. This may promote healing.
- Knee replacement surgery: In this procedure, the surgeon replaces the damaged tissues in the knee with the artificial implants. According to the severity of the condition, the surgeon may perform partial or complete knee replacement surgery.
- Arthroscopic surgery: Small incisions are made in the knee joint. The surgeon inserts a small camera or an arthroscope to remove damaged tissues from the knee joint.
For effective treatment of knee pain, visit Dr. Morgan. To schedule an appointment with the orthopedic surgeon in McKinney, TX, you can call at (972) 727 – 9995
27. April 2016 12:51
Jumper’s Knee, also referred to as Patellar Tendinopathy, occurs when the tendon that joins the kneecap (patella) to the shin bone (tibia) gets inflamed. The tendons join the muscles to the bones and helps in stabilizing the leg. The knee joint has two main muscles: quadriceps that lie at the front of the knee and the hamstrings at the back. The patellar tendon extends from the base of the kneecap to the tibia. It is a cord like tissue which may get irritated or damaged due to overuse.
- Sports activities that involve a lot of jumping and twisting may cause Jumper's Knee
- People with Knock Knees and Bow Legs are at a greater risk of suffering the injury
- Disparity in limb length
- Placement of the kneecap higher or lower than the normal positioning
- Weak supportive muscles such as quadriceps and hamstrings
- Not warming up before or relaxing after an activity
- Performing physical activities on a hard surface
- Being overweight
- Difficulty in straightening the leg
- Pain and stiffness
- Weakness in the knee and leg
- Swelling in the lower part of the knee
- A feeling of warmth or tenderness in the joint
- X-ray imaging may help to rule out other associated problems
- Physical examination of the knee, legs and thighs
- Providing adequate rest to the affected area and avoiding jumping, squatting or any other activity that may strain the knee joint
- Taking prescribed anti-inflammatory medications may help to reduce pain
- Apply ice packs at regular intervals
- Orthotics and foot inserts may help in providing support to the knee
- Wearing infrapatellar strap under the knee to reduce discomfort
- Keeping the knee elevated above the heart level to compress swelling
- Rehabilitation exercises may be performed to strengthen the knee joint as well as the supporting muscles
- Surgery may be required if the tendon is severely damaged. The orthopedic surgeon may remove the damaged parts of the tendon and surrounding tissues to relieve pain
For comprehensive diagnosis and treatment of Jumper’s Knee, visit Dr. Morgan. To schedule an appointment with the orthopedic sports surgeon in Allen, TX, you can call at (972) 727 – 9995.
23. November 2015 08:31
ACL is a crucial ligament located in the middle of the knee that restricts the forward movement of the femur and the tibia bones. Torn ACL is a common problem among sports persons who participate in football or basketball. The injury needs immediate medical attention and should be treated according to the cause and severity. Both intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors can lead to ACL tear.
Intrinsic Risk Factors
- Age: ACL tear is common among people between the age of 15 and 45 years. It usually occurs in people who participate in sports or lead a physically active lifestyle.
- Gender: Female athletes are often at higher risk of injuring their ACL during certain sports such as basketball, soccer etc. This difference is evident due to different muscle activation and movement patterns, smaller ACL and dissimilar bone knee geometry. The female sex hormones are also considered to affect the metabolism and biomechanical properties of the ACL.
- Genetic factors: People who have a history of Torn ACL in the immediate family are more susceptible to suffering the injury.
- Previous ACL injuries: Athletes who have history of ACL tears have a higher risk of new injuries. The players who have recently suffered from an ACL tear should remain cautious at least for a year. The location, type of injury and extent of ligament tear are crucial factors that determining the severity of the tear.
Extrinsic Risk Factors
- Direct blow to the outside of the knee: The risk for Torn ACL increases if you suffer a direct blow to the knee when it is hyper-extended or bent inwards. This type of injury may accompany various other knee injuries such as medial collateral ligament tear, medial meniscus tear or cartilage injuries.
- Pivoting, cutting and landing on one leg: Most cases of Torn ACL occur due to non-contact injuries that involve sudden pivoting, cutting or landing on single leg. These injuries are more frequent in sports such as soccer, basketball, volleyball, skiing, tennis etc.
- Condition of playing surface and footwear: The shoe-surface interaction is a considerable risk factor in Torn ACL. Wearing worn out shoes and playing on a hard surface exposes you to greater risk of ACL injuries.
Dr. Morgan provides complete diagnosis and treatment for Torn ACL. To schedule an appointment with the orthopedic surgeon in Allen, TX, you can call at (972) 727 – 9995 or visit 1105 North Central Expressway Suite 120, Allen, Texas 75013.
26. October 2015 10:37
The rotator cuff consists of various muscles and tendons that cover the shoulder joint capsule. It holds the upper arm bone firmly within the socket of the shoulder. Abrupt stress or repetitive shoulder movements can cause the rotator cuff to tear. The injury can also be a result of lifting heavy weights, motor vehicle accidents, age related bone degeneration, falling on the shoulder etc. The condition can vary in severity from minor inflammation to complete tearing of the rotator cuff.
Here are some risk factors that may make an individual susceptible to a rotator cuff injury:
- Age: With increasing age, the bones undergo gradual wear and tear, making them weak and susceptible to break. Rotator cuff injuries are most commonly seen in people above the age of 40 years due to inability of the bones to bear any forceful impact
- Sports Related Activities: Athletes who repeatedly perform overhead movements are often at a higher risk of suffering a rotator cuff injury. These may include sports activities such as tennis, archery, baseball, weight lifting etc.
- Certain Professions: people in certain occupations also require lifting the arm repetitively such as carpentry, painting, hammering and other construction jobs, which make them prone to rotator cuff injury. Such movement stretches the muscles and stresses the rotator cuff, thus leading to injury.
- Shoulder Arthritis: People with Shoulder Arthritis are more prone to suffer rotator cuff injury because of symptoms such as muscle weakness, shoulder instability, and formation of cysts. These exert pressure on the rotator cuff and increase the chances of an injury.
- Genetic Factors: People having a family member with a rotator cuff injury are more likely to suffer the condition themselves.
- Previous Injuries: Damage to shoulder structures or prolonged immobilization can weaken the muscles of the joint, thus making them vulnerable to injuries.
- Intense Training: Young people may suffer from the injury if they are involved in intense physical training and continuous sports activities.
If not treated on time, Rotator Cuff injury may lead to permanent weakness and stiffness, which can further restricts the movement of the shoulder joint. The patient must provide sufficient rest to the shoulder to promote healing. In severe cases, the injury may require surgical treatment.
For complete diagnosis and treatment of Rotator Cuff injury, visit Dr. Morgan. To schedule an appointment with the orthopedic surgeon in McKinney, TX, you can call at (972) 727 – 9995 or visit 7300 Eldorado Parkway, Suites 165/165A, McKinney, TX 75070.
16. September 2015 10:55
Knee Joint is made up of three bones: the lower end of the thigh bone (femur), upper end of shinbone (tibia) and the kneecap (patella). Various ligaments connect these bones together and provide mobility as well as stability to the knee. Being the largest joint in our body, it bears the entire body weight, helps us in walking, running and almost all activities of daily life.
Risk factors for knee pain are listed below:
- Excessive weight: Excessive weight puts immense pressure on the knee joint during simple activities like walking or climbing stairs etc. It also increases the chances of developing in Osteoarthritis which gradually hampers the joint cartilage, hence making the knee weak and painful.
- Nature of use: Repetitive motions and certain sports put more stress on the knee, ultimately leading to pain. Cycling, athletics and basketball are some of the sports where continuous pounding on the knee can cause pain.
- Biomechanical conditions: Structural abnormalities in the body, like one leg shorter than the other, changed walk due to back pain or Flat Feet can also increase the risk of developing the condition. Since knee is a complex joint and bears the entire body weight, even slight changes in its functioning can cause pain.
- Previous injury: If the knee has withstood an injury in the past, it is more likely to retract to pain. If it was not fully healed earlier or treatment had not been complete, the knee may remain weak and fragile, making it susceptible to injury or damage.
- Lack of strength in muscles and bones: If an individual has weak muscles, the knee joint will be more exerted during movements. People who lead a sedentary lifestyle and do not put the joints to adequate use also lose muscle strength.
- Smoking: It obstructs the supply of the required nutrition to the body tissues, thus making smokers susceptible to joint pain.
If knee pain is not timely diagnosed and treated, it may worsen and cause extreme discomfort. One must visit an orthopedic doctor if symptoms last long or there has been an injury to the knee. Taking rest and refraining from strenuous activities may provide short term relief from pain. However, a qualified orthopedic surgeon must be consulted to determine the exact cause of pain.
For more information, consult Dr. Morgan in McKinney, TX. In order to schedule an appointment with the orthopedic surgeon, you can call at (972) 727 – 9995.
15. July 2015 10:18
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury is a common sports injury that involves damage to the front cruciate ligaments running in the middle of the knee. Athletes, mostly women, who participate in sports such as rugby, netball, basketball, soccer, martial arts, skiing, etc., are susceptible to the injury. It is essential to follow certain precautions and safety measures to minimize the risks of injuring the ACL.
Here are some ACL injury prevention tips:
- Warm Up: Before you start working out or perform any physical activity you must make sure that you warm up properly. This will improve the blood circulation to your muscles and joints. You should do some stretching exercises, which will warm up your muscles and increase the flexibility.
- Increase Hamstrings and Lower Leg Strength: To avoid ACL injury, focus on strengthening your hamstrings and lower legs. Practice exercises that help you balance and avoid injuries while landing and jumping. To provide support to your knees, you should do strengthening exercises such as lunges, squats etc. regularly.
- Plyometric Exercises: Assisting in building strength, power and speed, plyometric exercise are beneficial in preventing ACL injury. However, you must ensure that you softly land from a jump to avoid putting pressure on the knees.
- Agility Drills: If you are into sports such as football, soccer or basketball, you are more prone to suffer from an Anterior Cruciate Ligament injury. You should make sure that you work on sport specific mobility drills. Focus on decelerating movements and landing after jumping to prevent an ACL injury. While performing the drills, keep your kneecap in line with your second toe to build up proper form.
- Take Proper Rest: It is crucial that you take proper rest and have adequate sleep to remain healthy and avoid injuries. Avoid continuing with your sport if you are having pain or discomfort and take professional medical advice.
- Knee Brace: Wearing a knee brace will offer you protection during high-risk activities.
- Participate in ACL Conditioning Program: The ACL prevention-training plan emphasizes on warm up, strengthening, stretching, plyometric, agility drills and cooling down.
However, if you are suffering from knee pain you should consult an orthopedic doctor for proper diagnosis and treatment. Dr. Morgan provides comprehensive treatment for ACL injuries in Allen, TX. In order to schedule an appointment with the orthopedic surgeon, you can call at (972) 727 – 9995.
17. June 2015 04:21
Kneecap, also known as Patella, is the triangular bone present in front of the knee, which connects the thighbone with the shinbone. The kneecap can slip out of its place due to trauma of a severe injury, causing pain, swelling and disability in functioning.
- Intense injury: Traumatic injuries like intense falls, motorbike collisions; sudden twisting of the knee, etc. can cause severe impact on the kneecap. This impact may result in its dislocation, causing instability in the kneecap.
- Shallow groove: The thighbone has a ‘v’ shaped groove to accommodate the movement of kneecap.
- Lose ligaments: Some children and women have loose ligaments, which tend to make their joints more flexible and prone to conditions like Kneecap Dislocation.
- Locking knee
- Intense pain
- Swelling and stiffness
- Inability to walk without aid
- Popping sensation in the knee
- Knee slipping off to the side
The diagnosis of an unstable kneecap is done by a physical examination. The orthopedic doctor may ask the patient to walk and straighten or bend the affected joint. The doctors may also evaluate the range of motion, tenderness and appearance of the knee. Sometimes a piece of bone or cartilage can displace or loosen when the kneecap dislocates and X-ray, MRI scans or CT scans can be helpful in assisting the doctor for diagnosing it.
- Reduction: The doctor can prescribe anti-inflammatory medications to relax the muscles and then apply gentle pressure to move the kneecap back into its position. This procedure is known as reduction.
- Immobilization: After the Kneecap gets back into its place there is a higher risk of recurrent dislocation, due to the weakness in the muscles. Doctors may recommend the patients to wear braces for 3-4 weeks, in order to stabilize the knee and limit the movement of the joint to speed up the healing process.
- Restrict weight bearing: The doctors recommend using crutches during the first 1-2 weeks of the injury. This is because putting weight on the knee can cause pain and slow the recovery process.
- Physical therapy: After the healing process begins, the doctors may suggest the patients to exercise regularly for regaining movement in the affected joint. Exercising also tends to reduce stiffness and strengthen the muscles holding the kneecap in position, reducing the risk of suffering from the same problem again in the future.
- Surgery: In severe cases, where the kneecap dislocates multiple times, the doctors may also recommend surgical procedure to help in solving the problem.
In case of instability in the kneecap, visit Dr. Morgan in Allen, TX. In order to schedule an appointment with the orthopedic surgeon, you can call at (972) 727 – 9995.
21. May 2015 05:52
Knee is the largest joint in the body that functions as a hinge between the femur, tibia and fibula. Osteoarthritis, trauma, Rheumatoid Arthritis or wear and tear can cause the joint to swell and lead to knee pain. Total knee replacement surgery, also known as Knee Arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure to correct knee joint deformity and relieve pain. Total knee replacement surgery helps in restoring the function of the joint.
When Is Total Knee Replacement Recommended?
The orthopedic surgeon may recommend total knee replacement if the patient is suffering from severe Arthritis, knee pain, bowing in or out of the knee and stiffness that restricts movement. Patients with severe degeneration of the knee joint along with pain and restricted motion are usually recommended the procedure.
Preparing for the Surgery
Before undergoing the surgery, it is recommended that the patient discuss all queries with the orthopedic surgeon. This will assist in preparing for procedure and being aware of the required post-surgical care. The doctor may also advise refraining from certain activities and medications prior to the procedure.
Total knee replacement surgery involves replacing parts of the knee joint with artificial components known as prosthesis. The procedure is performed under the effect of anesthesia and may take around 2 to 3 hours. The procedure generally involves four steps:
- Prepare the surface: During this step, the surgeon removes the damaged cartilage.
- Recreate the surface with metal implants: The damaged cartilage and bone is replaced with metal implants to create the new surface of the joint. These metal components are either cemented or pressed to fit into the bone.
- Resurface the patella: The surgeon removes the undersurface of the patella (kneecap) and resurfaces it with a plastic button.
- Create gliding surface: In this step, the surgeon inserts plastic spacer to form a smooth gliding surface.
Benefits of Total Knee Replacement
- Substantial relief from pain
- Ability to walk without limping or using a cane
- It also relieves stiffness in the joint
- The patient can find it easier to perform daily tasks, bend and climb stairs
However, in order to recover quickly and avoid complications, you must follow the instructions of the orthopedic surgeon. Post-surgical rest and exercises are crucial to ensure quick recovery. You should also visit the orthopedic surgeon periodically for checkup.
16. April 2015 12:18
Torn ACL is a relatively common sports injury that affects the knee. The ACL is an important structure that helps to maintain the stability of the knee joint. The ACL also prevents the shinbone from gliding headlong under the thighbone. The condition is a second or third degree sprain in the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL). With a torn ACL, the knee is more likely to clasp when the foot is planted the individual turns the leg.
- Sudden changes in direction
- Incorrect landing from a jump
- Stopping abruptly
- Slowing down while running
- Twisting the knee
- Extending the knee beyond its normal range of motion
- Direct blow to the knee, such as while playing contact sports
- Popping sound at the time of injury
- Intense pain
- Swelling and tenderness around the affected area
- Feeling of instability
- Feeling that the knee may give out
- Discomfort while walking
- Decreased range of motion
To diagnose a torn ACL, the orthopedic surgeon may physically examine the knee to look for swelling or inflammation. He may also ask you to move the knee in certain ways to determine if the ACL is injured. You may also be recommended to undergo imaging tests to rule out the possibility of any other condition and to assess the severity of the tear.
Torn ACL usually requires surgical treatment to restore the original functionality. However, for people who are elderly and have low level of physical activity, the orthopedic surgeon may recommend non-surgical treatment.
- Braces: The patient may be asked to wear a knee brace to provide support and stability to the knee while doing any physical activity. Crutches may also be used while walking to avoid putting weight on the affected knee.
- Physical Therapy: Once the swelling has subsided, physical therapy may help to strengthen the leg muscles and restore the normal functioning of the joint. Certain muscle strengthening, stability and range of motion exercises may be included in the rehabilitation program to promote recovery from the injury.
The torn ACL needs to be surgically reconstructed for patients who have higher fitness goals. During the procedure, the orthopedic surgeon may replace the affected ligament with a tissue graft from the other knee.
For comprehensive diagnosis and treatment of torn ACL, consult Dr. Morgan in Allen, TX. To schedule an appointment with the orthopedic surgeon, you can call at (972) 727 – 9995.
20. March 2015 06:39
The Medial Collateral Ligament is a thick band of tissue on the inside of the knee joint, which connects the tibia and the femur bones. An injury to MCL is quite common especially among athletes who regularly practice running and other strenuous activities. Any blow to the outside of the knee, sudden change in direction, and twisting of knee can lead to Medial Collateral Ligament injury.
- A blow to the outside of the knee
- Overuse of the joint
- Sudden twisting of the knee
- Slipping on the floor
- Trauma due to accident
- Turning of knee sharply
- Sports activities such as skiing, soccer, etc
- Loosening of ligaments
- Difference in pelvis and lower extremity alignment
- Swelling of tissues in the knee
- Popping sound on injury
- Inability to put weight on the knee
- Difficulty in moving knee
- Sensation of weakness
- Instability of knee
The orthopedic doctor diagnoses the condition based on the physical examination and the description by the patient. Certain imaging tests such as X-ray, MRI, or CT scan help in determining the extent of the knee injury.
The Medial Collateral Ligament injury is treated depending on the severity of the injury. The ligaments rarely need to be surgically repaired or reconstructed. Often the damage heals by reducing activity and immobilizing the knee by using cast or braces, as they reduce pain and instability.
Usually the orthopedic doctor recommends the patient to take rest and anti-inflammatory medicines, which help reduce swelling and pain. The patient is also advised to use crutches to avoid putting pressure on the knee.
Physical therapy is also helpful in quick healing MCL. The therapist treats swelling and pain with rest, ice, electric stimulation and keeping the leg elevated. He designs an exercise routine for the patient, which helps him regain strength and improve the range of motion. These exercises include stretching, up and down movement, etc.
However if the symptoms persist, then the patient may require surgery. The orthopedic surgeon makes an incision and re-attaches the torn ligament to the bone with large sutures or staples. If required, the ligament is reconstructed by replacing the loose ligament with a tendon graft. The patient must follow the rehabilitation instructions given by the orthopedic doctor.